C/C++ Tutorials

Two- Dimensional Arrays

TWO DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS in C


Two dimensional arrays are used to arrange data in tabular form. In these arrays we have rows and columns. It is basically a two dimensional matrix with specific number of rows and columns.

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C Tutorials

Scope Rules and Storage Class Specifiers

STORAGE CLASS MODIFIERS

the four set of keyword namely  static, extern , auto , register are called storage class modifiers which modify the storage location of a variable and hence affect its scope and lifetime.

 

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C Tutorials

Pointers - Intermediate

Increment and Scale factor
As  mentioned in the previous tutorial on pointers, we can use increment and decrement operators with pointers.
int *ptr;
And say ptr has value 1012.
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C Tutorials

Working of a Compiler

Compilation: source code ==> relocatable object code (binaries)

 

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  1. Linking: many relocatable binaries (modules plus libraries) ==> one relocatable binary (with all external references satisfied)
  2. Loading: relocatable ==> absolute binary (with all code and data references bound to the addresses occupied in memory)
  3. Execution: control is transferred to the first instruction of the program
C Tutorials

Pointers

C Tutorials

Introduction

One of those things beginners in C find difficult is the concept of pointers. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an introduction to pointers and their use to these beginners.

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A pointer is a variable that contains the memory location of another variable. The values you assign to the pointers are memory addresses of other variables.

Functions

What is a function?

 It is basically a self-contained block of code designed to perform a particular task whenever it is called. (In technical terms: a sub-routine or a module.)

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C++ Tutorials

Structures

C Tutorials

It has been already studied that arrays are used to represent a group of data items of same data type. However it cannot be used to combine data of different data types.

For this reason only, the concept of STRUCTURES comes into picture. It is mechanism of packaging data of different types.

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Array Declaration

What is an array?

An array is a sequenced collection of elements of the same data type. All the elements in an array have same size and data type. It is used to store large volume of similar data. For example:-

  • Salaries of employees in an organisation.
  • Marks of students obtained in an examination
C Tutorials